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    粵語學習網(學說廣東話)
    網站首頁 粵語教程 粵語歌曲 粵語廣電 潮汕話 客家話 上海話 閩南語 四川話 重慶言子 湖南話 溫州話 寧波話 其他
    粵語

    粵語,又叫廣東話、廣州話、廣府話、白話,英文叫Cantonese,系廣東(粵系廣東嘅第二個名)加埋部份廣西、香港、澳門講嘅話,喺東南亞地區同埋一啲粵人移民地方都有人講。

    語言學入邊,粵語系種聲調語言,屬漢藏語系漢語族。粵語有四大片:粵海片、四邑片、桂南片、高陽片。廣東地區系粵語發源[未記出處或冇根據],粵海片一般被當做標準粵語嘅基礎。

    人口方面,舊時統計有6600萬人講各種口音嘅粵語,全球排十六位;亦有啲統計數字話粵語使用人口有1億2千萬1。雖然粵語響中國大陸冇法律地位,之但系廣東地區開放歷史有幾百年,經濟發展先過內陸,加上有香港經濟同文化發達,令粵語有好大影響力,成為香港文化同粵文化嘅根基。由18世紀開始,因為大量講粵語嘅人移民行出國,令粵語成為海外華人之中比較多人講嘅語言。

    嶺南地區,粵語沿珠江各支流散佈,可以分做六個區:西江/珠江、潯江/郁江、北流江/南流江、南江/鑒江、漠陽江、潭江。前便四個水路交頻繁,可以互通;后便兩個因為水系分隔,互通較為困難。

    廣州由于系粵語發源,所以廣州嘅粵語可以算系粵語標準嘅基礎,而由于香港所用嘅語言一樣系廣州話,加上香港對外交流頻繁,同系講廣州話嘅香港,通過大量粵語流行曲,電視劇,電影,對粵語發展同弘揚有好大嘅影響。

    粵語簡史

    粵語嘅發展史,同嶺南史系息息相關。而歷史可以追到公元前,秦國南攻百越嗰陣。秦始王先后兩次平定百越,好多中原漢人移民到嶺南,漢越雜處之下,古粵語就開始形成,之后一路喺幾個朝代都有人喺中原南下,嚟到嶺南,而且仲好多都系名門望族,或者系文人雅士,古粵語就系咁樣影響之下,慢慢咁變成而家嘅粵語。

    粵語嘅特點

    1.古漢語嘅元素

    粵語保留左大量古漢語嘅成分,主要表現喺語音、詞匯、語法等方面。

    2.音調

    標準粵語/粵語廣州話保留左好多古音,例如“我”同埋“餓”兩字嘅舌根鼻音聲母“ng-”保留左中古疑母嘅原始發音。

    聲調方面,標準粵語完整保留左中古漢語中,平、上、去、入各分陰陽嘅調類格局,而且仲喺陰入之中衍生出一個中入調,系保留古漢語入聲較為完整嘅語言(喺諸閩語中,仲有混合入聲,睇閩南語),對于讀出聲同埋研究中國古詩詞等文學作品,有重要嘅作用。標準粵語包含 -p、-t、-k、-n、-m、-ng 六種韻尾,冇漢語北方話所有嘅卷舌音、兒化、輕聲呢啲現象(呢啲北方話特徵都系喺中古之后發展形成嘅,標準粵語并冇跟北方方言咁變)。

    3. 詞匯

    粵語保留多啲古詞古義,而且好多詞語,包括助語詞,都可以直接喺古漢語嘅典籍里面搵到來源。喺漢語北方話中,呢啲古詞已經被廢左唔用或者好少用。

    好似粵語講“黐”唔講“粘”,用“差人”或“差佬”/“差婆”嚟講“警員”咁;又好似粵語成日喺句尾嘅語氣助詞“忌”(而家成日寫做“嘅”),喺《詩經.國風.鄭風.大叔于田》有“叔善射忌,又良御忌”嘅表述;再例如打甂爐(北方話嘅食火鍋),“甂爐”系一種古炊具;“牙煙”(即“崖廣”,意思系危險,古文中原意為“懸崖邊嘅屋仔”,其中,“廣”同埋“廣”喺古代漢語中系唔同嘅字,表達唔同嘅意思,前者就系“屋仔”之意。懸崖邊嘅屋仔,危險咁解。);“濿浙”(讀“濕懠”,現粵語中意為“遇到麻煩”、“麻煩”;來源于古書中形容衣衫盡濕喺水中行走嘅聲音)咁嘅詞;重有,現代漢語嘅“行”同埋“走”嘅意思基本上冇分別,但系廣州話當中,“行”就系步行,而“走”保留左古漢語中“跑”嘅意思。但系隨著漢語北方話喺廣東地區嘅推行同埋外來人口嘅影響,好多廣州話保留下嚟嘅古語詞彙已經用少左。

    4.語法

    粵語中成日見到修飾擺喺后面同埋倒裝之類修辭。“公雞”調轉成“雞公”,“要緊”調轉成“緊要”,“離奇”調轉成“奇離”,“沉吟”調轉成“吟沉”,“乾菜”調轉成“菜乾”,“羹匙”調轉成“匙羹”等。由于粵語語法里面有好多修飾成分倒置嘅現象(系唔系北方話之后倒裝呢?),因此產生左好多好特殊嘅句式。例如北方話“怪不得”;粵語就講“唔怪之得”或者“怪唔之得”。又好似北方話嘅“我先走了”;粵語就講“我走先”。呢啲都系古漢語特徵嘅遺留。

    5.古百越話元素

    古代南遷到嶺南地區嘅漢人同埋百越土著長期雜居,彼此間語言、文化、習俗等各方面唔覺意就相互滲透。粵語既有古漢語成分,又有古代南越語成分,系兩個民族相互融合嘅結果。現代粵語里面仍然有好多古代南越語嘅成分,主要表現喺詞匯方面。

    6.外文詞

    粵語嘅應用一直系充滿活力,外文豐富左粵語嘅詞匯,喺商業為重嘅香港,睇到用辭嘅演變,好似以前啲美容廣告用“減肥”做標題,跟住變做“瘦身”、“纖體”。有啲公司管理人員甚至用“瘦身”一詞來代替“裁員”。

    粵語好多詞來自英文。香港人講野時成日用英文單詞,好似快勞(file,讀做“fai-lo”)即系公文夾;鋪頭仔叫“士多”(音似英文:store);男警員或男先生叫“阿 Sir”;女警叫“Madam”、女先生叫“Miss”,開工加班叫“開OT”(Overtime)等等。雖然通常英文發音會用中文字代入,但香港人有時會直接用英文字,如“感覺”叫 feel,亦冇用中文字,但跟粵語讀音習慣,feel 一般讀做 few,無 L 尾音,fax 讀成“fak-si”加重尾音,而且影響埋廣東粵語區。

    由1980年代開始,香港、珠三角等粵語區同埋中國大陸其他地方交流多左,唔少粵詞入埋北方話,例如 巴士(bus)、“貼士”(tips)。有時,呢啲詞喺北方話會變身,例如粵語“搭的士”,“飛的”(即系“搭開得好快嘅的士”,“飛”有“飛咁快”嘅意思,簡稱“飛的”)喺北方話變左做“打的”。

    粵語同北方普通話嘅比較

    粵語喺變化發展過程中亦不斷出現好多同漢語北方話唔同嘅特有詞匯,呢啲詞匯有好多重沿用至今,系粵語嘅另一特色。日常用語中粵語同北方話唔同嘅詞彙可多達 50% 以上。喺科學技術領域,兩者唔同嘅詞彙就比較低,細過 10%。有啲詞彙喺北方會倒轉寫,例如“私隱”喺北方話就叫“隱私”。

    粵語嘅音系

    粵語有相當復雜嘅聲調系統,同北方話(官話方言)嘅差別非常大。喺粵語中相當完整咁保留左古漢語嘅入聲,而且仲由陰入、陽入分化出中入。標準粵語有九個聲調,分別系:陰平、陽平、陰上、陽上、陰去、陽去、陰入、中入、陽入。關于粵語嘅發音同埋拼寫,詳見粵語羅馬化方案(粵語拼音或粵語羅馬字)、粵語發音。

    粵語嘅書寫

    粵語源自古漢語,除左一啲近年受西方文化影響而創嘅詞語,例如話“去 wet”、“去 hea”,用中文字都寫得出。

    清代嘉慶年間已經有人用粵言入詩,啲人將呢啲粵語詩收集埋,出左套《粵謳》詩歌集。

    之后寫粵語嘅人又創左套“三及第”嘅文體 -- 即系文言、粵文、白話文(國語)夾埋寫,1940、1950年代廣府文人就成日用呢種文體寫野,嗰陣好多廣州報紙、小說,都用“三及第”,后來好多廣州寫稿佬到左香港,帶埋呢種文體去,香港報紙亦開始有人寫[3],1905年鄭貫一出版嘅《有所謂報》,就系用三及第寫 [4]。

    近幾廿年,香港有啲娛樂媒體用曬粵語寫,例如有70年代到90年代好流行嘅香港漫畫,好似《壽星仔》、《玉郎漫畫》咁,入面嘅對白同專欄,都系地道嘅粵語。

    到左電腦時代,好多粵字大五碼系統一開始時無收,寫粵文好唔方便。香港政府早年曾整過套香港增補字元集,收錄左擴增粵字約5000字左右),如“啲”、“嘅”、“攞”、“揸”、“野”、“冚”。喺最新一版嘅增補字元集中,重收埋一啲所謂嘅“粗口字”。用呢套字元集,大部份粵語都寫得出。

    因為唔系所有電腦都裝左廣東話增補字集,有人喺打唔出粵字時,會用英文嘅“o”來代替口字邊,寫“啲”、“嘅”、“野”成“o的”、“o既”、“o野”等等。

    八十年代開始,好多語言學者考證過粵語本字。但系本字好多太僻,學校亦都唔敎,所以一般大眾都好少會用。

    粵語方言片

    粵語內部由于地理分佈而造成唔同地方有唔同語言特點,主要分4片[5]:

    1.粵海片:主要分佈喺廣東省珠江三角洲、粵中、粵西南部同部分粵北地區,粵海片系最多人用,最通行、最有代表性同最大影響嘅粵語,以廣州話代表。
      2.四邑片:主要分佈喺臺山、開平、恩平、新會、斗門等縣,以臺山話代表。
      3.高陽片:主要分佈喺湛江市、茂名市所屬各縣同江門市所屬嘅陽江縣同埋陽春縣,以陽江話代表。
      4.桂南片:主要分佈喺廣西壯族自治區邕江、郁江、潯江沿岸嘅南寧市、橫縣、貴港市、桂平市、平南縣、藤縣、蒼梧縣、梧州市,另外仲有玉林市、北流市、容縣、博白縣、陸川縣、防城港市、東興市、欽州市、合浦縣、浦北縣、靈山縣、北海市、岑溪縣、昭平縣、蒙山縣、賀州市、鍾山縣,佢嘅語音比較一致,只系得小小分歧,主要以南寧話代表。

    桂南片根據內部一啲異同,又可以細分為四個方言小片﹕廣府片、邕潯片、勾漏片同欽廉片。

    粵語嘅影響力

    由于中國移民海外嘅人之中,有相當比例來自粵語區,令粵語成為大多數海外華人社區之中,其中一種流行語言。

    而喺香港同埋澳門,市民日常交流,到學校教育、工商行業,到政府辦公、立法會選舉;到科學研究、新聞傳媒、大眾娛樂,都系主要用粵語,其次系英語。同時香港大眾媒體同埋娛樂事業嘅繁榮,亦令到粵語嘅文化散佈到全世界。

    粵語教程

    粵語拼音學習  粵語會話三月通視頻教程  流行粵語快速入門  實用廣州話300句mp3
    即學即用廣東話mp3  Cantonese Learning  學講廣州話MP3

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